Captain Singh is the son of Yadavindra Singh and Mohinder Kaur, former Maharaja of Patiala. He attended the Welham Boys’ School and Lawrence School Sanawar and The Doon School,  Dehradun. His children include Yuvraj Raninder Singh and Jai Inder Kaur. His wife Preneet Kaur, is an MP serving as Minister of State in the External Affairs Ministry.
Amarinder Singh was elected to the Lok Sabha on an Indian National Congress ticket in 1980. In 1984, he resigned from Parliament and from Congress as a protest against the Army entry in Darbar Sahib’s complex in Operation Bluestar. He became convenor of the Sikh Forum and joined the Shiromani Akali Dal. He was elected to the state legislature and became a minister in the state government for Agriculture, Forest, Development and Panchayats.
He broke away from the Akali Dal and formed a splinter group named Shiromani Akali Dal (Panthic) which later merged with the Congress. He served as the President of Punjab Pradesh Congress Committee from 1999 to 2002 and became Chief Minister of Punjab from 2002 to 2007. In September 2008, a special committee of Punjab Vidhan Sabha expelled him on the count of regularities in [the] transfer of land related to the Amritsar Improvement Trust by the Akali Dal-Bharatiya Janata Party led government. In 2010, the Supreme Court of India held his expulsion unconstitutional on the grounds it was excessive and unconstitutional.
He was elected the chairman of Punjab Congress Committee for the second time in 2009
He has also written books on war and Sikh history they include A Ridge Too Far, Lest We Forget and the most recent being The Last Sunset; Rise and Fall of Lahore Durbar.